Events in the larger community, the state, the country, and the rest of the world are experienced through the eyes of a journalist. Not only do the media report the news, they create the news by deciding what to report. The "top story" of the day has to be picked from the millions of things that happened that particular day. After something is deemed newsworthy, there are decisions on how much time or space to give it, whom to interview, what pictures to use, and how to frame it. Often considered by editors, but seldom discussed, is how the biases and interests of management will impact these determinations.
All of these decisions add up to the audience's view of the world, and those who influence the decisions influence the audience. The media, therefore, have enormous importance to conflict resolution because they are the primary -- and frequently only -- source of information regarding conflicts.
If a situation doesn't make the news, it simply does not exist for most people.
When peaceful options such as negotiation and other collaborative problem-solving techniques are not covered, or their successes are not reported, they become invisible and are not likely to be considered or even understood as possible options in the management of a conflict. The news media thrive on conflict. The lead story for most news programs is typically the most recent and extreme crime or disaster. Conflict attracts viewers, listeners, and readers to the media; the greater the conflict the greater the audience, and large audiences are imperative to the financial success of media outlets.
Therefore, it is often in the media's interest to not only report conflict, but to play it up, making it seem more intense than it really is. Long-term, on-going conflict-resolution processes such as mediation are not dramatic and are often difficult to understand and report, especially since the proceedings are almost always closed to the media. Thus conflict resolution stories are easily pushed aside in favor of the most recent, the most colorful, and the most shocking aspects of a conflict.
Groups that understand this dynamic can cater to it in order to gain media attention. Common criteria for terrorist attacks include timing them to coincide with significant dates, targeting elites, choosing sites with easy media access, and aiming for large numbers of casualties.
It is not unusual for camera crews or reporters to encourage demonstrators into these actions so they can return to their studios with exciting footage. The resulting media coverage can bestow status and even legitimacy on marginal opposition groups, so television coverage naturally becomes one of their planned strategies and top priorities. The "second sound bite" has become a familiar phrase in television and radio news and alert public figures strategize to use it to their advantage. In most parts of the industrialized world, the news has to "sell," because the handful of giant media conglomerates that control most of the press media outlets place a high priority on profitable operations.
Their CEOs are under relentless pressure to generate high returns on their shareholders' investments. Media companies face tight budgets and fierce competition, which often translate into fewer foreign correspondents, heavy reliance on sensationalism, space and time constraints, and a constant need for new stories. Reporters with pressing deadlines may not have time to find and verify new sources. Instead they tend to rely on government reports, press releases, and a stable of vetted sources, which are usually drawn from "reliable" companies and organizations.
Most overseas bureaus have been replaced by "parachute journalism," where a small news crew spends a few days or less in the latest hotspot. These same media outlets are also dependent upon advertisement revenue, and that dependence can compromise their impartiality.
Many newspapers and television stations think twice before reporting a story that might be damaging to their advertisers, and will choose to avoid the story, if possible. According to a survey taken in , " The news that is reported in the West comes from an increasingly concentrated group of corporate- and individually-owned conglomerates. Many of these companies are the result of recent mergers and acquisitions. The U. Federal Communications Commission FCC is currently considering revising media-ownership rules that would encourage even further consolidation in the future.
In addition to the control exercised by owners, there are also government controls and self-censorship. The United States, governed by a constitution where the First Amendment guarantees freedom of the press, has arguably one of the most free presses in the world, and is one of the few countries where the right to free speech is expressly written into the constitution. Yet even the U. In many other countries around the world, especially emerging nations and dictatorships, governments impose tight restrictions on journalists, including penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment and execution.
In these environments, rigorous self-censorship is necessary for survival. In a major survey of U. Without the media, most people would know little of events beyond their immediate neighborhood. The further one goes outside of one's circle of friends and family, the more time-consuming and expensive it becomes to get information. Very few, if any, individuals have the resources to stay independently informed of world events. With the news, however, all one has to do is turn on a television or turn to the Internet. Even when it is biased or limited, it is a picture of what is happening around the world.
The more sources one compares, the more accurate the picture that can be put together. In addition to the media conglomerates, there are also a range of independent news outlets, though they have a much smaller audience. Some of these provide an alternative view of events and often strive to publish stories that cannot be found in the mainstream media.
Technological advances in many industrialized primarily Western countries make it possible to read papers and watch broadcasts from around the globe. While language skills can be a barrier, it is possible to live in the United States and watch Arab-language broadcasts from the Middle East, or to get on the Internet and read scores of Chinese newspapers. Having access to these alternative voices limits the power of monopolies over information.
Another important benefit of a functioning mass news media is that information can be relayed quickly in times of crisis. Tornado and hurricane announcement can give large populations advance warning and allow them to take precautions and move out of harm's way.
watch In a country suffering war, a radio broadcast outlining where the latest fighting is can alert people to areas to avoid. In quieter times, the media can publish other useful announcements, from traffic reports to how to avoid getting HIV. It is a stabilizing and civilizing force.
Along the same lines, the news media allow elected and other officials to communicate with their constituents. Frequently, the delegates at a negotiation will find they understand each other much better over the course of their discussions, but that understanding will not reach the larger populations they represent without a concerted communications effort.
If constituents are not aware of these new understandings and subsequent compromises during the course of negotiations, they will almost certainly feel cheated when a final agreement falls far short of their expectations. To achieve ratification, delegates must justify the agreement by discussing it with and explaining it to their constituents throughout the entire process and the media is often used for this purpose. A recent media phenomenon dubbed the "CNN effect" occurs when powerful news media i.
You can say "Thank you" to the writer donating him any amount you want. Otherwise, their consciousness about the development of science, politics, and civilization as a whole would remain immature. New technology, such as the Internet, has fuelled the emergence of new media forms and schisms within the media industry. The long or short-. Dissertation help service uk. Whether it is anti smoking propaganda or the empowerment of women, the promotion of a greener environment or the education of the girl child, media works relentlessly to put across social messages.
CNN seem to be creating the news by reporting it. It has been argued that CNN, with its vast international reach, sets the agenda by deciding which items are newsworthy and require the attention of government leaders. Traditionally, agenda-setting has been seen as the prerogative of government. It is also argued that emotionally-charged footage of people suffering, such as mass starvation, bombed-out markets, and burning houses, arouse the public to demand immediate action.
This gives leaders little time to think through an appropriate response and can force them to take valuable resources from more urgent, less photogenic issues. This use of sensational imagery is cited as being responsible for the United States' ill-fated involvement in Somalia : "In the words of one U. Pictures of U.
The CNN effect also brings up issues of accuracy. The New York Times, with its vast resources, has long been known as "the newspaper of record; once something is reported by this leading news outlet it is accepted as fact unverified and carried by other outlets, even when errors creep into the Times' account.
Some observers argue that the CNN effect is overrated, if not complete myth. Warren Strobel and Susan Carruthers, for example, argue that the U. Strobel also argues that any action a politician undertakes as a result of this pressure will be merely a "minimalist response" -- a limited action that suggests a greater response than has taken place. Another study done by Beresin shows that kids are learning aggressive behaviors from watching shows and movies, that portray such behavior. This can develop a fear of being victimized.
It also leans toward the belief that violence is a means of resolving conflicts. Sex is an issue exaggerated by areas of media, television and movies. It makes it seem normal for those younger to engage in sexual relations. Whether it being portrayed as being the thing to do or a rebellious act, It intrigues young people. Teens regard the media as a source for info on sexuality and relations. Daniel T.
With the overall inpact of the media becoming an increasing problem within the younger generation, you can already see a decrease in terms of respect in our society today. Respect for self seems to have disintegrated. Respect for others, as many can see, has shown a decline even within the last few years, with lower standards in society being accepted. Since youth represents the majority of the population, teenagers and young adults are a part of this group. Just the fact that youth have access to information through Internet, they learn things as well as behaviors unsuitable for their age.
Somera, head director of sociology for Baltimore Maryland. Family relationships as well as overall respect for family relationships have deteriorated somewhat as well. Since youth is the most targeted, it is important to have this involvement at an extremely early age.