Muscular and skeletal system essay

Musculoskeletal System: Normal Structure & Function

Most importantly, the system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage depot for calcium and phosphorus. It also contains critical components of the hematopoietic system blood cell production.

Bones, Muscles, and Joints

The muscles of the muscular system keep bones in place; they also play a role in movement of the bones by contracting and pulling on the bones, allowing for movements as diverse as standing, walking, running, and grasping items. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Within these joints, bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on each other. Muscles contract bunch up to move the bone attached at the joint.

Joints, tendons, and ligaments : To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Human muscular system : The muscles of the muscular system keep bones in place while assisting with movement by contracting and pulling on the bones. Unfortunately, diseases and disorders that may adversely affect the function and overall effectiveness of the system exist and can be detrimental to the body.

These potentially debilitating diseases can be difficult to diagnose due to the close relation of the musculoskeletal system to other internal systems. In humans, the most common musculoskeletal diseases worldwide are caused by malnutrition. Ailments that affect the joints, such as arthritis, are also widespread. These can make movement difficult; in advanced cases, they completely impair mobility.

In severe cases in which the joint has suffered extensive damage, joint replacement surgery may be needed. Progress in the science of prosthesis design has resulted in the development of artificial joints, with joint replacement surgery in the hips and knees being the most common. Replacement joints for shoulders, elbows, and fingers are also available. Even with this progress, there is still room for improvement in the design of prostheses.

Essay about The Skeletal Systems And The Body

The state-of-the-art prostheses have limited durability, wearing out quickly, particularly in young or active individuals. Current research is focused on the use of new materials, such as carbon fiber, that may make prostheses more durable. Prostheses : Improvements in the design of prostheses, artificial replacements for body parts such as joints, elbows, legs, and fingers, have allowed for a wider range of activities in impaired recipients. The hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton support, protect, and provide movement to the bodies of different types of animals.

A skeletal system is necessary to support the body, protect internal organs, and allow for the movement of an organism. There are three different skeleton designs that provide organisms these functions: hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton.

A hydrostatic skeleton is one formed by a fluid-filled compartment within the body: the coelom. The organs of the coelom are supported by the aqueous fluid, which also resists external compression. This compartment is under hydrostatic pressure because of the fluid and supports the other organs of the organism. This type of skeletal system is found in soft-bodied animals such as sea anemones, earthworms, Cnidaria, and other invertebrates.

Hydrostatic skeleton : The skeleton of the red-knobbed sea star Protoreaster linckii is an example of a hydrostatic skeleton. Movement in a hydrostatic skeleton is provided by muscles that surround the coelom. The muscles in a hydrostatic skeleton contract to change the shape of the coelom; the pressure of the fluid in the coelom produces movement.

For example, earthworms move by waves of muscular contractions peristalsis of the skeletal muscle of the body wall hydrostatic skeleton, which alternately shorten and lengthen the body. Lengthening the body extends the anterior end of the organism. Most organisms have a mechanism to fix themselves in the substrate. Shortening the muscles then draws the posterior portion of the body forward. Although a hydrostatic skeleton is well-suited to invertebrate organisms such as earthworms and some aquatic organisms, it is not an efficient skeleton for terrestrial animals.

An exoskeleton is an external, hard, encasement on the surface of an organism. For example, the shells of crabs and insects are exoskeletons.

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Careers May 2, The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage depot for calcium and phosphorus. The femur is the longest bone in your body and is located in your thigh. Licenses and Attributions. Even with this progress, there is still room for improvement in the design of prostheses. The auditory ossicles consist of six bones: two malleus bones, two incus bones, and two stapes, one of each on each side. Muscles which cause movement of a joint are connected to two different bones and contract to pull them together.

This skeleton type provides defense against predators, supports the body, and allows for movement through the contraction of attached muscles. As with vertebrates, muscles must cross a joint inside the exoskeleton.

Types of Skeletal Systems | Boundless Biology

Shortening of the muscle changes the relationship of the two segments of the exoskeleton. Arthropods, such as crabs and lobsters, have exoskeletons that consist of 30—50 percent chitin, a polysaccharide derivative of glucose that is a strong-but-flexible material. Chitin is secreted by the epidermal cells.

The exoskeleton is further strengthened by the addition of calcium carbonate in organisms such as the lobster. Because the exoskeleton is acellular and does not grow as the organism grows, arthropods must periodically shed their exoskeletons.

Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System

Exoskeletons : Muscles attached to the exoskeleton of the Halloween crab Gecarcinus quadratus allow it to move. An endoskeleton consists of hard, mineralized structures located within the soft tissue of organisms. An example of a primitive endoskeletal structure is the spicule of sponges. The bones of vertebrates are composed of tissues, whereas sponges have no true tissues. Endoskeletons provide support for the body, protect internal organs, and allow for movement through contraction of muscles attached to the skeleton.

Endoskeletons : The skeletons of humans and horses are examples of endoskeletons. They provide bodies with support, protection of organs, and aid in movement. The human skeleton is an endoskeleton that consists of bones in the adult. It has five main functions: providing support to the body, storing minerals and lipids, producing blood cells, protecting internal organs, and allowing for movement.

Muscle Tissues

The skeletal system in vertebrates is divided into the axial skeleton which consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage , and the appendicular skeleton which consists of the shoulders, limb bones, the pectoral girdle, and the pelvic girdle. The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the human body and consists of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.

enter site The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the human body and includes the bones of the skull, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone of the throat, the vertebral column, and the thoracic cage ribcage. The function of the axial skeleton is to provide support and protection for the brain, spinal cord, and organs in the ventral body cavity. It also provides a surface for the attachment of muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk; performs respiratory movements; and stabilizes parts of the appendicular skeleton, which will be discussed later.

There is some evidence that the pH of blood plays a role in the release of calcium stores from bones and the extent of bone mineralization since calcium salts are often used as buffers in acidic environments in the body. A whole-foods, plant -based diet has been shown greatly reduce blood acidification.

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As a result, it also lowers cases of osteoporosis. Arthritis includes a number of joint disorders that are characterized by stiffness, inflammation, and pain. While there is a range of potential causes, arthritis usually worsens with age, affecting the joints that are used most frequently — especially the joints in fingers, hips, and knees. Arthritis, therefore, causes disability, restricts movement and impairs fine motor skills. Meat, carbonated beverages, cheese, eggs and even milk have been linked to a decrease in blood pH.

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How might these things affect bone health? Enter your email to receive results:. Biology Dictionary. Which of these is an inflammatory condition?

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They will not affect the bones. Decreased pH is compensated by drawing calcium from the bones. They will add calcium to the bones. None of the Above. Why is the hyoid bone called a floating bone? It is surrounded by synovial fluid. It does not directly connect to any other bone. It looks like a log. All of the above.

Why do babies have more bones than adults? Some of the bones fuse together during normal development. Some of the bones dissolve away. Which of the following are functions of the skeletal system? Creating red blood cells and other cell types. About December 18, Careers May 2, Our Team May 2, Contact October 14, Privacy Policy October 14, Terms October 14, Scholarship May 13, Citation October 14, Latest Posts.

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Metaphase I June 18, Prophase II June 18, Aldosterone June 18, Urinary System June 18, Midsagittal Plane June 18, Artificial Selection June 18, Urethra June 17, Adaptive Radiation May 31, Popular Topics. Skeleton September 7, Community December 29, Niche December 20, Virus August 25, DNA May 27, Translation November 23, One system is called skeletal system which is to serve as a support the body, mineral storage, energy storage fat , blood cell production, movement leverage , and protect the internal organs.

Martini, The average adult skeleton has bones that are joined together by ligaments bone to bone and tendons muscles to bone to make a protective framework for the tissues and muscles Functions such as the tendons, cartilage, and ligaments connect the bones and tissues together. There are two types of tissue inside the bones. They consist of; compact bone and spongy bone. First, compact bone depicts the main shaft of long bones in the human body such as the arms and legs Better Essays words 2.

The human body contains more than six hundred skeletal muscles, which establish forty percent to fifty percent of the total body weight. Nevertheless, skeletal muscle performs three important functions which include: force generation for locomotion and breathing, force generation for postural support, and heat production during cold stress Better Essays words 4.

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When learning about homeostasis, there are two different feedback systems that take place and play major roles in the human anatomy. These are the positive feedback system and the negative feedback system.